Low light night vision technology

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Night vision technology is a specialized technology for studying the generation, enhancement, conversion, transmission, storage, and processing of optical image information at night or under low illumination. It is a marginal subject developed on the basis of physics, electronics, electron optics, physiological optics, engineering optics, fiber optics, vacuum technology, semiconductor technology, and computer technology in recent decades, integrating optics-mechanics-electronics-computers, etc. A high-tech integrated technology. It is one of the three high-tech emerging in the field of optics since the 1960s: laser technology, fiber optic technology, and low-light night vision technology. 

       In the process of human origin, formation, and development, after long-term natural selection, the living habits of daytime activities and night sleep have been formed, and the basic characteristics of the human visual system have also been shaped. Although the human eye is the best optical sensor in the world, it has certain limitations and flaws. It can only detect light of a certain brightness (10-100000 lux), can only distinguish images of a certain spatial frequency, and can only receive light information within the visible spectrum (360-760 nanometers). In other words, the human eye not only cannot see ultraviolet images and infrared images, but also cannot see or clearly see visible light images without sufficient intensity of artificial lighting or natural lighting. Generally speaking, optical information is the information with the largest capacity, the highest frequency, the fastest speed, and the most intuitive. The amount of information that humans obtain through the human eye and visual system is much greater than the sum of other sensory systems such as the auditory system and olfactory system, accounting for about 80% of the information that the human sensory system can obtain. These limitations and defects of the human eye largely limit the time and space of human activities, as well as the ability to understand and transform the world. The contemporary information society urgently needs to improve, expand, and extend the functions of the human eye, especially the ability to obtain information under low-light conditions. Thereby promoting the development and industrialization of low-light night vision technology. The fundamental task of night vision technology is to research and manufacture "night vision goggles" which are similar to human eye vision aids like telescopes and microscopes, and to expand the functions of human eyes in the following three aspects, that is, to improve the detection of weak light energy by human eyes ability (reduce the brightness threshold), improve the human eye's ability to distinguish the spatial distribution of weak light information (improve the human eye's ability to distinguish the spatial frequency of weak light information), expand the detection range of the human eye to the spectral band (can accept light other than visible light Light information in the ultraviolet and near-red bands). All in all, the low-light night vision technology can enable human beings to see and see clearly like daytime at night or in dark conditions, and can obtain enough light information to enhance or convert invisible or invisible images to human eyes. visible image. This technology increases the time and space range of human activities and the ability to obtain information and images. It extends the time of human activities from day to night, and from bright environments to nights without artificial lighting. In short, night vision technology is the technology to manufacture the human eye's vision aid "night vision eye".

       Night vision technology is widely used in military, industrial, agricultural, scientific research, medical and health fields, etc., especially in the military. The demand is the driving force behind the development of night vision technology. Modern warfare requires all-weather operations to increase the suddenness of wars. and the space-time scope of operations. It needs to rely on night vision technology to conduct all-weather observation and surveillance of the entire battlefield at night or under weak illumination conditions.

       In addition, the public security, armed police, customs and other departments conduct night patrols, detection, evidence collection, law enforcement, security anti-smuggling, drug collection, and anti-pornography operations. Night vision technology is one of the most important means in the fight against criminals, anti-espionage and national security. Night vision technologies such as monitoring the underwater part of the drilling platform and ocean fishing are the most important tools. In the field of medicine and health, such as the intake, enhancement and processing of X-ray images, cancer screening such as early diagnosis, in scientific research, such as satellite remote sensing, telemetry, astronomical galaxies, night observation and recording of weak stars, and plant growth at night Night vision technology is indispensable for the study of law and the living habits of nocturnal animals.