Flying to realize dreams|Towards an aerospace power! Count the three "three" of China's space station

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The Mengtian experimental module is the second experimental module of the Chinese space station. After launching into orbit and successfully docking, the three modules of the Chinese space station will form a "T" basic configuration and complete the construction of the space station in orbit.

In 1992, "Three Steps"

This year is the decisive year for the construction of China's space station, and it is also the 30th anniversary of the establishment and implementation of China's manned spaceflight project.

On September 21, 1992, China's manned spaceflight project was officially approved for implementation, code-named "Project 921". According to the plan, the project will be implemented according to the "three-step" development strategy:

The first step is to launch a manned spacecraft, build a preliminary supporting experimental manned spacecraft project, and carry out space application experiments;

The second step is to make breakthroughs in the technology of astronauts' out-of-vehicle activities and the rendezvous and docking technology of space vehicles, launch a space laboratory, and solve the problem of space applications with a certain scale and short-term care;

The third step is to build a space station to solve the problem of large-scale space applications with long-term care.

Flying to realize dreams|Towards an aerospace power!  Count the three "three" of China's space station

China Space Station Design: Wang Ying Poster material source: China Manned Space Engineering Office

Before the establishment of the manned spaceflight project, in 1964, China's domestic biological rocket carrying mice was successfully launched, which was the first important achievement in my country's spaceflight industry.

Wang Zhaokui, an expert and deputy leader of the China Manned Space Engineering Orbital Expert Group, and a tenured professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering of Tsinghua University, told that manned spaceflight engineering is very difficult.

"This is mainly reflected in the fact that the manned project has high safety requirements, the system is particularly large, and the organization and coordination tasks are heavy." He said that the project involves eight subsystems. "Especially when astronauts are sent into space, safety must be ensured. The tight coordination of the various systems cannot have any problems."

In 2022, a space "mansion" with three bedrooms and two living rooms

The China Space Station, also known as the Tiangong Space Station, is based on the three cabins of Tianhe Core Module, Wentian Experimental Module, and Mengtian Experimental Module. It is designed to fly in orbit for 10 years and has the ability to extend its life to 15 years. It can operate stably in orbit for a long time . The three-compartment combination will be able to carry more than 10 tons of load equipment and support 3-6 people to stay at the same time.

An aerospace expert once compared that the Chinese space station is like a "mansion" with three bedrooms, two halls and storage rooms. The "three rooms" refer to the Tianhe core module and the Wentian and Mengtian experimental modules, and the "two halls" refer to the Shenzhou manned spacecraft and the Tianzhou cargo spacecraft.

Flying to realize dreams|Towards an aerospace power!  Count the three "three" of China's space station

China Space Station Design: Wang Ying Poster material source: China Manned Space Engineering Office

Since 2020, China's manned spaceflight project has implemented the first flight of the Long March 5B carrier rocket, the core module of the space station Tianhe, the manned spacecraft of Shenzhou 12 and Shenzhou 13, and the cargo of Tianzhou 2 and Tianzhou 3. The spacecraft flew a total of 6 missions.

According to the mission arrangement, China launched the Tianzhou-4 cargo spacecraft in May this year, the Shenzhou-14 manned spacecraft in June, and the Wentian experimental module of the space station in July. The Mengtian experimental module was successfully launched today at the Wenchang Space Launch Site.

Hao Chun, director of the China Manned Space Engineering Office, said that after this, the Tianzhou-5 cargo spacecraft and the Shenzhou-15 manned spacecraft will be launched.

It is worth noting that during the construction of the Chinese space station, the crew of the manned space flight continued to carry out a series of on-orbit teaching activities such as the "Tiangong Classroom". On October 12, the third lesson of the "Tiangong Classroom" was held on the space station. This is the first time that Chinese astronauts have taught in the Wentian experimental cabin.

The new "space teachers" Chen Dong, Liu Yang, and Cai Xuzhe showed the working and living scenes of the Wentian experimental cabin of the space station, and demonstrated the capillary effect experiment in a microgravity environment, the water polo "lazy" experiment, fun drinking water in space, and the wrench that can turn around, etc. , focusing on the research on rice and Arabidopsis planting carried out on the Chinese space station, and showing the operation of cutting plants in a glove box.

The third country to build a space station

According to foreign media reports, China is the third country in history to send astronauts into space and build a space station after the former Soviet Union and the United States.

At present, apart from the Tiangong space station, the only space station in service in the world is the International Space Station, which is jointly operated by the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada and European space agencies. The station was officially built in 1998 and completed in 2010.

Our country has stated on many occasions that it hopes to participate in the construction of the International Space Station, but it has been repeatedly rejected by foreign parties on the grounds of technical secrecy and China's shortage of funds.

In 2011, U.S. legislation banned any scientific and technological exchanges between NASA and the China National Space Administration.

In this context, our country has started the process of self-experimental research and development of the space station system.

Flying to realize dreams|Towards an aerospace power!  Count the three "three" of China's space station

my country's space station independent research and development project development process design: Wang Ying Poster material source: China Manned Space Engineering Office

After unremitting efforts, our country will also have an important platform for long-term human participation in scientific experiments, technological experiments, comprehensive development, and utilization of space resources.

The international media pay close attention to the latest progress of China's space station construction. The BBC reported on "Tiangong Space Station: How China Plans to Become the Next Space Power", saying that "China's influence in the space field is constantly expanding."

"Time" also reported: "China is opening the Tiangong space station to other countries in the world with space dreams."

Hao Chun once said: "We are willing to build the Chinese space station into a platform to promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind, and together with astronauts and aerospace technology teams from various countries, we will continue to explore the vast universe and benefit mankind."

In 2019, the China Manned Space Engineering Office and the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs announced the selection results of the first batch of projects for space science experiments around the China Space Station. A total of 9 projects from 17 countries and 23 entities were successfully selected.

The report of the Twentieth National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that we should insist on focusing on the real economy for economic development, promote new industrialization, and accelerate the construction of a manufacturing power, a quality power, a space power, a transportation power, a network power, and a digital China.

Wang Zhaokui said that aerospace technology is the embodiment of the country's comprehensive national strength, especially the strength of science, technology and industry. "Aerospace technology is a cutting-edge technology that gathers multiple disciplines. If it develops well, it means that the country is strong."